WILL & DENI MCINTYRE / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY WILL & DENI MCINTYRE / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Acid rain damage to trees. A conifer forest with many trees damaged or killed by acid rain. Loss of leaves and stunted growth occurs as the trees undergo a "die back" effect. Pollution of nitrogen oxide from car exhausts and sulphur dioxide emitted by fossil fuel power stations and heavy industry create rain that is acid. Normal rain has a pH of 5.6; in parts of North America and Europe the average pH is now 4-4.5, resulting in deforestation and acidification of lakes. Trees, especially conifers, are particularly vulnerable to acid rain. Photographed on Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, USA.
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