ASTRID & HANNS-FRIEDER MICHLER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY ASTRID & HANNS-FRIEDER MICHLER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Acid rain damage. View of a group of conifer trees damaged by acid rain. Several of the trees here show a severe loss of leaves characteristic of the "die back" effect caused by acid rain. Pollution such as nitrogen oxides from car exhausts, and sulphur dioxide emitted by fossil fuel power stations create acid rain. Normal rain has a pH of around 5.6; in parts of North America and Europe the average pH is now nearer 4, resulting in deforestation and acidification of lakes. Trees, especially conifers, are particularly vulnerable to acid rain. Photographed in the Czech Republic.
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