BSIP, JACOPIN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY BSIP, JACOPIN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Genetic material. Computer illustration of the structure of human genetic material. Nearly every human cell (centre left) has a nucleus (lower left) with 46 chromosomes (one seen at lower centre). The chromosomes are made of chromatin, which consists of nucleosomes (groups of balls, lower right). These are formed in turn from DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, blue) wrapped around balls called histones. DNA's double helix is linked by paired nucleotide bases (multicoloured) which form the genetic code. The DNA can unravel to allow messenger RNA (ribonucleic acid, mRNA) to copy the DNA. The ribosome (purple) translates the mRNA into amino acids and links them to form a protein.
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