WILL & DENI MCINTYRE / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY WILL & DENI MCINTYRE / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
DNA fingerprinting. Geneticist analyses DNA fingerprints that show relatedness in a family tree. In the background, DNA fingerprints are seen as a pattern of black bands on a light box. The DNA banding pattern produced is unique to each individual, which forms a kind of genetic "identity card". In humans this DNA genetic material, found in the nucleus of each cell, is usually extracted from white blood cells, sperm or hair follicles. By analysing the banding pattern, DNA fingerprints are used to prove conclusively whether people are related, for instance in immigration or paternity disputes. The technique is also used to identify criminals.
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