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Genetic research. Researcher using a binocular microscope to view a culture of genetically engineered cells. Genetic engineering is the process of altering the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) of an organism with the intention of changing its characteristics. DNA is the chemical which controls all of an organism's inherited functions. Genetically engineered organisms are usually used to produce a particular useful substance. For instance, genetically engineered bacteria have been designed which can produce human insulin. Research is also being carried out into possible cures for genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis.
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