PROF. DR. H.OBERLEITHNER, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL OF MUENSTER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY PROF. DR. H.OBERLEITHNER, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL OF MUENSTER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Nuclear pore complexes. Coloured atomic force micrograph (AFM) of the surface of a nucleus showing the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs, rings). NPCs are complexes of proteins that are embedded in the nuclear envelope. Surrounding some of the NPCs are receptors (peaks) for glucocorticoid hormones. These receptors allow the hormones to enter the nucleus, where they bind to immune system genes to either increase or decrease their expression. All material moving between the nucleus and the cell cytoplasm passes through NPCs. They allow passive transport (diffusion) of ions and small molecules and active transport (energy dependent) of proteins and RNAs (ribonucleic acids). Magnification: x83,900 when printed at 10 centimetres wide.
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