ROGER HARRIS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY ROGER HARRIS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Atomic structure. Conceptual computer artwork of atomic structure. Three electrons (blue) are seen orbiting the central nucleus. Neutrons (green) are neutral and protons (red) carry positive charge. They bind together in the nucleus. This model of electronic structure was proposed by Niels Bohr. Later developments in physics led to electrons being viewed as indeterminate particles with wave properties, spread over areas of probability, rather than orbiting on fixed paths. Electrons are negatively-charged and determine the course of chemical reactions. Nuclear reactions liberate energy from the nucleus. The proton is 1836 times as massive as the electron.
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