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Irving Langmuir, Willis R. Whitney and William D. Coolidge, eminent American scientists. Langmuir (left) (1881-1957) was a chemical physicist, awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize for chemistry for his work on surface chemistry. He was the first industrial chemist to become a Nobel Laureate. Whitney (centre) (1868-1958) was a pioneer of industrial science and technology research. He worked at General Electric (GE) from 1900 and oversaw work on inventions such as vacuum and gas-filled light bulbs, wireless telegraphy and X-ray technology. Coolidge (right) (1873-1974) also worked at GE, conducting critical experiments that led to the use of tungsten as filaments in light bulbs. In 1913 he invented the Coolidge tube, an improved cathode for X-ray machines that utilized this technology.
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