US NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY US NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Manhattan Project nuclear physicists and Nobel Prize in Physics laureates, from left to right: Ernest O. Lawrence (1901-1958, Nobel in 1939), Enrico Fermi (1901-1954, Nobel in 1938), and Isidor Rabi (1898-1988, Nobel in 1944). Lawrence, born in the USA, invented the cyclotron. Fermi, born in Italy, emigrated to the USA in 1938 and carried out crucial work on the first nuclear reactor. Rabi, born in Galicia in the Austrian Empire (now in Poland), came to the USA as a child. His most famous work was on nuclear magnetic resonance. All three were present at the first atomic bomb test in 1945, the culmination of the Manhattan Project.
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