SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Soviet North Pole-1 station crew members. Seated at left is Ivan Papanin (1894-1986), expedition leader and Arctic explorer. Seated at centre is Ernst Krenkel (1903-1971), radio operator. Standing (from left to right) are: Yevgeny Fyodorov (1910-1981), geophysicist; and Petr Shirshov (1905-1953), hydrologist. SP-1 was the world's first dedicated ice drift station. The four expedition members spent 234 days in the Arctic during the winter of 1937-8 carrying out scientific experiments on their ice floe. All four received the prestigious award of Hero of the Soviet Union. Photographed in Russia, in 1939.
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