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Bust of the Greek mathematician and physicist, Archimedes, c.287-212 BC. Known as the greatest mathematician of ancient times. Archimedes studied in Alexandria (his teacher, Conon, had been taught by Euclid), and returned to his native Syracuse in Sicily. He used experiments to test his theories which were then expressed mathematically. With geometry he measured volumes of solids; calculated a value for "pi"; his book Sand-Reckoner notates large numbers. The Archimedes principle considers the weight and volume of a body immersed in fluid (liquid or gas). Archimedes also created mechanics (compound pulley, Archimedian screw) and founded hydrostatics. Photo: of a bust from Herculanium.
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