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N. Appert. Drawing of Nicholas Appert (1749-1841), French chef, pioneer of food preservation by canning and inventor of the bouillon cube. Appert competed for a prize of 12,000 Francs offered in 1795 by the ruler of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, for practical methods of food preservation. In 1809 he devised a method consisting of heating food, placing it in a glass jar, sealing the jar with a waxed cork and immersing it in boiling water. He collected the prize in 1810, the same year as Peter Durand began using a similar process with metal cans in Britain. Appert used the money to open the first commercial cannery but was ruined by Napoleon's fall and died poor.
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