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Archimedes. Mosaic of the death of the Greek mathematician and physicist, Archimedes (287-212 BC), whilst sitting at his calculating board. It is believed that Archimedes was killed by a Roman soldier during the siege of Syracuse when he failed to answer a challenge because he was immersed in solving a mathematical problem. As a mathematician, Archimedes discovered the value of pi, the ratio between a circle's radius and circumference. He also derived the formulas for the areas and volumes for a variety of shapes. He pioneered the theory of levers and showed that a floating object will displace its own weight of fluid.
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