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Averroes (1126-1198), Islamic Spanish physician and philosopher, at right, being banished in disgrace. Averroes is a Latinised form. His full Arabic name is Abu al-Walid Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd, often given as Ibn Rushd (The Commentator). Averroes served as a judge and a physician in Spain and Morocco, until he was banished following the Almohads conquest towards the end of the 12th century. Before the banishment, he wrote Kulliyat fi al tib (General Medicine, 1162-1169) and Tahafut-al-Tahafut (The Incoherence of the Incoherence). He also wrote commentaries on the work of Aristotle. Averroes's works were later widely translated into Latin. They were used by Aquinas (1225-1274) as a basis for his influential philosophical works separating religious faith from scientific reason. Engraving from the 1883 edition of Vies des Savants Illustres.
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