PHYSICS TODAY COLLECTION / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY PHYSICS TODAY COLLECTION / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
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Ludwig Boltzmann. Historical portrait of the Austrian physicist Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844- 1906). Boltzmann extended the kinetic theory of gases and used the mechanics and statistics of large numbers of particles to give definitions of heat and entropy (a measure of the disorder of a system). He also worked on electromagnetism and black body radiation. Boltzmann suffered life-long depression. His work was attacked by scientists who opposed theories based on atoms. He committed suicide at the age of 62.
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