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Margaret Cavendish. Engraving of Margaret Cavendish (maiden name Lucas) Duchess of Newcastle (1623-73), British natural philosopher. She married William Cavendish in 1640 while in exile for supporting the Royalist cause but returned to Britain in 1651. Through her husband and her brother, John Lucas, she gained entry to the society of 'European philosophers'. She studied contemporary science and produced 14 publications during 1653-71 and was invited to visit the Royal Society by Boyle and Hooke. She was eccentric, vain and held inconsistent scientific views. From the frontispiece of Philosophical and Physicial Opinions (1663).
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