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Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni, German physicist

Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni, German physicist

H403/0186

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SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption

Ernst Chladni. Portrait of Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827), German physicist and acoustics pioneer. He measured the speed of sound by filling organ pipes with different gases and noting the change in pitch. He used a violin bow to vibrate sheets of metal which were clamped in the middle then covered in sand. The sand formed a variety of different symmetrical patterns. These Chladni figures were due to the sand collecting in areas where the plate did not vibrate (nodes); these patterns allowed waveforms to be studied. Chladni also invented two musical instruments, the euphonium and clavicylinder.

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