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Emile Clapeyron. Historical portrait of French engineer Emile Clapeyron (1799-1864). His interpretation of a neglected paper on heat by Sadie Carnot, published in 1834, was highly influential and contributed to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Following ten years in Russia as a civil engineer, he returned to France in 1830 at the dawn of the railway era. He headed the construction of a railway line from Paris to St Germain and went on to specialise in locomotive design. He was elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1848. The Clapeyron relation, an equation that determines a liquid's heat of vaporization, is named after him.
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