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Alexis Carrel (1873-1944), French-US surgeon, in a laboratory, using a microscope. Carrel pioneered surgical techniques for repairing blood vessels. He was born in Lyons, France, on 28 June 1873. He studied medicine in France, and first worked in the USA in 1904. As well as developing techniques to repair blood vessels, he worked on transplants and heart surgery. He was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Carrel then returned to France during the Second World War, working first for the Ministry of Health and then as Director of the Carrel Foundation for the Study of Human Problems. He died in Paris, France, on 5 November 1944.
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