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Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), French neurologist. In 1863, Charcot was appointed to the Salpetriere Hospital for mental disorders in Paris, France. Using observation and autopsies, Charcot was able to relate several diseases of the nervous system to specific lesions. He discovered the disintegration of ligaments and joint surfaces with disuse (Charcot's disease). He supported the findings of Paul Broca that different bodily functions are controlled by different parts of the brain. He studied "hysteria" using hypnosis. Charcot became a leading figure in the Paris Medical School and his pupils included Sigmund Freud.
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