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Harvey Williams Cushing (1869-1939), American neurosurgeon and physiologist. Cushing was a skilful brain surgeon. He pioneered several important techniques including the control of blood pressure during surgery. He improved methods for diagnosis, localisation, and surgical removal of brain tumours. He studied the function and pathology of the pituitary gland at the base of the brain, and showed that acromegaly (increased size of hands, feet and face) is linked with pituitary overactivity, while dwarfism is caused by its underactivity. A chronic wasting disease, Cushing's syndrome, which is linked with a type of pituitary tumour, was named after him.
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