SHEILA TERRY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SHEILA TERRY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles (1746-1823), French chemist, physicist and aeronaut, historical artwork. A scientist and professor of physics, Charles developed several inventions including the hydrometer and reflecting goniometer, and improved the Gravesand heliostat and Fahrenheit's aerometer. He was elected to the French Academy of Sciences and is perhaps best remembered for his formulation in 1787 of Charles's law, one of the basic gas laws. However, during his lifetime, Charles was probably better known for making the first-ever flight in a hydrogen balloon on 1st December 1783, together with Marie-Noel Robert.
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