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Johann F. Dieffenbach. Portrait of Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847), German surgeon and a pioneer of plastic surgery, transplant surgery, squint surgery and gynaecology. Dieffenbach was a pioneer of techniques used in plastic surgery, and also made early efforts in transplant surgery. At the time such surgery was restricted to skin grafts. In 1839 he developed a technique of cutting eye muscles to correct squints. He worked on finding a cure for vaginal fistula, in which a hole develops in the wall of the vagina. A cure for the condition was finally found in 1852 by James Marion Sims.
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