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The American virologist John Franklin Enders, 1897-1985. Enders was a flying instructor in World War I, began a career as an estate agent, studied languages at Harvard, and finally changed to microbiology. He pioneered the technique of growing viruses in living cell cultures with penicillin to prevent bacterial growth, rather than using whole animals as culture vessels. In 1948, with the help of F.C. Robbins and T.H. Weller he cultured the mumps virus, and by 1951 they were also able to develop a measles vaccine. They shared the Nobel Prize in 1954, and their methods allowed virology to advance with successes such as the Salk and the Sabin polio vaccines.
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