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Etienne-Louis Fallot (1850-1911), French pathologist. Fallot discovered the cause behind "blue baby" disease, a condition in which babies develop cyanosis (blue colour) due to insufficient oxygen in the blood. In 1888 he showed that affected babies had an abnormal heart, meaning that not all of their blood was directed to the lungs for oxygenation. The condition classically includes four distinct developmental errors, and is known as tetralogy of Fallot. In Fallot's time, the condition was invariably fatal. Modern surgical techniques mean that most such infants can now live a normal life after a series of operations in their childhood.
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