JEAN-LOUP CHARMET / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY JEAN-LOUP CHARMET / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Franz Gall. Caricature of Franz Joseph Gall (1758- 1828), the German physician who established the pseudo-science of phrenology. A demon is with him and around him are images representing people's foolishness or bad behaviour. Phrenology is the examination of bumps on heads to determine person- ality traits. Gall mistakenly believed that the brain contained up to 42 organs which each contri- buted a different aspect of personality. These organs would increase in size if often used and so affect the overall shape of the skull. Gall faced religious opposition because his theories blamed evil behaviour on a physiological trait rather than on free will. English caricature from 1790.
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