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Karl Friedrich Gauss. Portrait of Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), German mathematician, aged 77. A child prodigy from a poor family, his education was paid for by the Duke of Brunswick. He contributed to all areas of mathematics, especially to number theory (higher arithmetic). Much of his mathematical research remained unpublished during his lifetime, and the degree to which he anticipated a century of mathematics has only become clear since his death. In 1801 he won fame when his computation of the orbit of Ceres led to the rediscovery of the asteroid. He also studied the Earth's magnetic field, and developed the magnetometer with Weber.
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