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Portrait of the German astronomer and physicist Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Kepler became a follower of Copernicus (who first proposed that the Earth revolved round the sun) whilst studying theology. He formulated the three fundamental laws of planetary motion based on the detailed observations of the planets made by Tycho Brahe. The first of these laws concerned the orbits of planets, which Kepler showed to be elliptical & not circular as previous held. He wrote a book on the problems of measuring volumes of liquids, which was influential in the evolution of infinitesimal calculus, and he was also interested in astrology.
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