SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
The German chemists Gustav Kirchhoff (left) and Robert Bunsen (centre) portrayed with the English chemist Sir Henry Roscoe at the University of Manchester. In 1859 Kirchhoff (1824-1887) and Bunsen (1811-1899) established atomic flame spectroscopy in chemical analysis, with which they discovered two new elements, Caesium and Rubidium. Kirchhoff also made important contributions to physics formulating the Kirchhoff's laws concerning the electric current and potential at any point of an electric network. Roscoe (1833- 1915) and Bunsen made the first studies in photochemistry and devised a photometer for measuring the intensity of radiant energy.
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