SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966), Soviet rocket engineer. Korolev trained as an aeronautical engineer and worked on rockets. In 1938, he fell victim to Stalin's purges and was sent to a labour camp. During WWII, he worked with other imprisoned engineers on weapons design. After the war, he developed the first inter- continental ballistic missile (ICBM), the R-7. He was responsible for its use to launch Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite. He then directed the Vostok, Voskhod and Soyuz manned spaceflight programmes. His identity was a state secret and he was referred to only as "the Chief Designer".
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