SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (1894-1984), Russian physicist and Nobel laureate, wearing his Hero of Socialist Labor medal. Kapitsa was born and educated in Russia, but his early work was with Rutherford in Cambridge University, England. He worked in England until 1934 when, on a visit back to the USSR, he was detained and his passport taken away. He was forced instead to work in the USSR with state funding. In 1946, after refusing to work on the Soviet hydrogen bomb project, he was exiled to the countryside. After Stalin's death in 1953, he resumed his career. His share of the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics was for his work on low-temperature physics. The Kapitza resistance is named for him. Photographed in 1965, in Russia.
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