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Title page of Kepler's Rudolphine Tables. The Rudolphine Tables was published by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) in 1627. It contained detailed observations of the positions of the stars and planets made by Tycho and Kepler. This data was used to devise Kepler's three fundamental laws of planetary motion. The tables allowed, for the first time, the calculation of planetary positions for any time in the past or future. They were validated when a transit of Mercury predicted by the tables was observed by Gassendi in 1631.
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