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Lavoisier's chemistry book. Title page of Elements of Chemistry (1789), the book by Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794) that is considered the foundation of modern chemistry. Lavoisier studied combustion, and determined that burning is a reaction between the substance and part of the air. After further research, he identified the gas responsible, and named it oxygine (meaning "acid forming"). He burned numerous organic substances (such as alcohol) and weighed the water and carbon dioxide produced, becoming the first to perform quantative analysis of compounds. He also studied organic processes such as respiration, fermentation and heat production in animals.
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