EMILIO SEGRE VISUAL ARCHIVES / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY EMILIO SEGRE VISUAL ARCHIVES / AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
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Carl von Linde (1842-1934), German chemist. Linde was a low-temperature chemist and engineer who pioneered refrigeration systems and gas separation techniques. In 1876, he successfully marketed an ammonia compressor refrigeration unit and produced a domestic version in 1877. These were more efficient than the coolers which had previously been available. In 1896, he devised a method in liquefying air by compression and expansion with intermediary cooling, which allowed liquid air to be mass-produced for the first time.
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