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Jacques-Etienne de Montgolfier (1745-1799), French pioneer of aeronautics who invented, with his brother Joseph-Michel, the hot-air balloon. In 1783 the brothers, who worked in the family paper- making business, constructed a balloon made from paper-covered canvas, and equipped with a portable stove in which wool and straw were burnt to produce hot air. On September 19th of that year it was used to take aloft the first air passengers; a sheep, a duck and a cock. The Montgolfier's balloon was used for the first successful human flight on November 19th. Etienne himself never ascended in a balloon, and Joseph did so only once.
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