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Samuel Morland. Engraving of Sir Samuel Morland (1625-95), English mathematician and inventor. Born the son of a clergyman, Morland was made a knight and granted a pension for revealing a plot to kill the King Charles II. With his financial future secure, Morland devoted himself to mathematics and invention. He devised a mechanical calculator for adding and subtracting and in 1666 he invented a version that could also multiply and divide. He then devised loud hailers and made improvements to barometers. In 1675 he began selling water pumps for mines, ships and homes. The neck gland or seal that he put around the outside of the piston greatly eased manufacture.
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