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Karl Marx (1818-1883), German social philosopher. Marx, along with Friedrich Engels, wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848). This outlined their theories of class struggle and the revolutionary role of the proletariat. Its publications led to Marx being expelled from Brussels, where he had been living, and he settled in London in 1849. In 1864, the International Working Men's Association was founded in London, with Marx as one of its leading thinkers. His work formed the basis for socialist and communist thinking that came to inspire revolution across Europe in the following decades.
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