GEORGE BERNARD / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY GEORGE BERNARD / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Florence Nightingale. Artwork of Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), British nurse, in a hospital ward. Nightingale (standing at centre left) earned the name 'lady with the lamp' through her tireless caring of the wounded during the Crimean war (1853-56). Her experiences convinced her of the need to take a sanitarian approach to hospital design. Before this, disease spread quickly in hospitals due to overcrowding, poor ventilation and bad drains. She publicised the miasma theory of disease and advocated light and airy hospitals with clean staff and good sanitary engineering. Image from the military hospital in Scutari, Russia, published in a 1856 book.
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