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J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-67), US physicist. Born into a wealthy New York family, he was educated at Harvard and in Europe at Gottingen, Germany, where he studied under well known physicists such as Rutherford, Heisenberg and Dirac. In 1943 he was nominated director of the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos, in New Mexico, where the first atomic bomb was constructed. From 1943 to 1953 he served as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. In 1953 his political background and support for the H-bomb project were questioned, and his security clearance was revoked ending his Government work. In 1963 he won the Fermi Award.
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