SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Ivan Pavlov, Russian physiologist, born Ryazan' on September 14, 1849, died Leningrad on February 27, 1936, photographed in 1931. Pavlov quit training for the priesthood to study natural science in St Petersburg. His experiments in 1889 on the mechanism of digestion in dogs were crucial in establishing the importance of the autonomic nervous system: for these he was awarded the 1904 Nobel prize in medicine. He is best remembered for subsequent work on conditioned reflexes - conditioning a dog to salivate in anticipation of food by ringing a bell each meal time. Eventually, the bell alone provoked salivation. These experiments founded behaviourist psychology.
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