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Portrait of Max Planck (1858-1947), German physicist and originator of quantum theory. Planck was educated at Munich and Berlin. After his doctorate in 1879, Planck turned his attention to the 'black body' radiator. He used his own theory of quanta to explain the light emission spectrum of this theoretical body. He showed that for each quantum packet of energy, the ratio of its energy to its wavelength was constant. This became known as Planck's Constant, and is one of the fundamental constants of the universe. This idea led to most of modern physics, and to his 1918 Nobel Prize. In 1930 he became president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, later named after him.
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