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Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), French chemist and microbiologist. He discovered that fermentation is caused by microorganisms and went on to develop the germ theory of disease. He developed a vaccine against rabies, which led to the founding of the Pasteur Institute in 1888. He saved the French silkworm industry by identifying diseases that were decimating the worms. He discovered the anthrax bacterium and developed a vaccine against it. He discovered that gentle heating of wine and beer preserves them from souring: the process of pasteurisation which is now widely used in the food industry.
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