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Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian physiologist. Pavlov is most famous for his work on what he called conditioned reflexes. This work involved sounding a bell whenever a dog was presented with food. Eventually, the sound of the bell would cause the dog to salivate even when the food was not presented. This is known as Pavlovian conditioning. As well as brain activity, he also studied the circulatory and the digestive systems. His surgical preparations provided great insight into the nervous control of salivation and the role of enzymes in digestion. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1904 in recognition of his work on digestion. Photograph taken circa 1904.
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