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Jean Pitard (1228-1315), French surgeon. Pitard was the first Royal Surgeon, personally serving King Louis IX, King Philippe the Handsome and King Philippe the Brave. He also created the Brotherhood of Saint-Come and Saint-Damien, the first trade association of surgeons in France. Prior to this, surgeons were regarded as little more than manual traders like barbers, while doctors were seen as more educated due to their book-orientated studies in medical school. Pitard gave surgeons more qualifications by allowing them to take exams within this organisation. The brotherhood later became the Royal Academy of Surgery in 1748. Portrait from the 17th century.
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