NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Wilder Penfield (1891-1976), Canadian neurosurgeon, who revolutionised our understanding of the human brain. Born in America, Penfield was educated at Princeton, Johns Hopkins, and Oxford universities and went on to become a pioneering brain surgeon in Montreal. Here he developed the Montreal Procedure, where patients would remain awake and describe their reactions as the surgeon stimulated different areas of the brain. He applied the procedure to the surgical treatment of epilepsy and used the information gained during hundreds of brain operations to create functional maps of the cortex (surface) of the brain.
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