SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian physiologist and doctor, wearing his University of Cambridge doctoral robes, which he was awarded in Cambridge in 1912. Pavlov is most famous for his work on conditioned reflexes, sometimes called Pavlovian conditioning in his honour. With the right conditioning, the sound of a bell would cause a dog to salivate even when food was not present. Pavlov was awarded the 1904 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in recognition of his work on digestion. He was also elected to the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1907, and awarded the Order of the Legion of Honour in 1915. Photographed in 1912.
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