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Lazzaro Spallanzani. Engraving of Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-99), Italian biologist. Spallanzani combined his natural science interests with a religious career. In 1767 his results from experiments of sealed, well-boiled broth quest- ioned John Needham's 'proof' of the spontaneous generation of microbes. Spallanzani also showed that some organisms can live without oxygen, a process called anaerobis. He achieved artificial insemination in amphibians, insects and dogs. He also discovered that bats could avoid obstacles and catch prey even when blinded. He was the first to observe blood passing from arteries to veins in warm-blooded animals.
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