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William Shockley. Portrait of British-American physicist, inventor and Nobel Laureate, William Bradford Shockley (1910-89). Born in London, Shockley was educated at the California Institute of Technology and at M.I.T. in USA. He joined Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1936. After the War, Shockley collaborated with Bardeen and Brattain in producing semiconductor devices to replace vacuum tubes. Using a germanium rectifier they invented the point-contact transistor in 1947. Shockley devised the junction transistor in 1948. These devices led to miniaturized circuits in radio, TV and computers. Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain received the Nobel Prize for physics in 1956.
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