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The English physicist Sir Joseph John Thomson, 1856-1940. Thomson studied mathematics at Cambridge obtaining his degree in 1880. In 1884 he became professor of physics and director of the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge remaining in charge until 1919. Thomson proved in 1897 that the cathode rays, already studied by other physicists such as Crookes, were composed of charged negative particles that the Irish phycicist Stoney named electrons. Thomson was also able to measure the ratio between the mass and the charge of the electrons. In 1906 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his studies on electrons and electric conduction through gases.
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