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James Watt (seated, 1736-1819), Scottish engineer and inventor. He made many practical improvements to the steam engine of his day. By 1790, the Watt steam engine had completely replaced the older Newcomen variety. His inventions included the double acting engine where the piston both pushes and pulls (1782); the centrifugal governor, a device that controlled a process by means of variations in the process itself (1788); and the pressure gauge (1790). Watt also coined the term "horsepower" to describe a unit of energy. Artwork published in the book Heroes of the Laboratory and Workshop (London and New York, 1860).
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